A Closer Look at High-Impact Practices
Table 4 displays the percentage of all U.S. respondents who participated in each HIP by selected student and institution characteristics. In general, results show the following:
- Seniors at Baccalaureate Arts and Sciences colleges experienced HIPs at considerably higher rates.
- HIP participation showed little variation by sex but did vary somewhat by race/ethnicity, with some students of color less likely to have done research with faculty, study abroad, or an internship or field experience.
- HIP participation was much more common among traditional-age students and those enrolled full time, and somewhat less common among first-generation and transfer students.
- HIP participation varied by major-field category. For example, seniors in the biological sciences (including related fields such as agriculture and natural resources) and physical sciences (including math and computer science) were more likely to participate in research with faculty, while those in education and social service professions were more likely to participate in service-learning.
|Service- Learning||Learning Community||Research w/ Faculty||Service-Learning||Learning Community||Research w/ Faculty||Internship/ Field Exp.||Study Abroad||Culminating Experience|
|Doctoral Universities–Very high research activity||48||15||5||55||24||26||52||18||45|
|Doctoral Universities–High research activity||50||14||4||58||24||24||51||16||44|
|Master’s Colleges and Universities–Larger programs||54||11||4||61||19||19||42||8||41|
|Master’s Colleges and Universities–Medium programs||64||12||5||73||26||25||53||12||52|
|Master’s Colleges and Universities–Smaller programs||56||8||4||68||24||25||52||10||50|
|Baccalaureate Colleges: Arts & Sciences Focus||54||9||5||69||30||43||68||36||76|
|Baccalaureate Colleges: Diverse Fields||62||11||6||74||29||26||54||13||54|
|Fewer than 1,000||66||10||6||75||28||30||61||14||59|
|1,000 - 2,499||64||11||5||74||29||31||59||20||60|
|2,500 - 4,999||58||13||5||67||26||26||53||15||53|
|5,000 - 9,999||54||12||4||62||23||22||48||13||46|
|10,000 - 19,999||51||14||5||59||23||21||46||11||40|
|20,000 or more||45||13||5||54||19||20||43||13||39|
|Race/ethnicity or international|
|American Indian or Alaska Native||56||9||3||65||22||18||39||9||42|
|Black or African American||57||13||6||65||25||18||40||8||39|
|Hispanic or Latino||55||12||4||63||21||18||41||11||37|
|Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Islander||51||14||3||66||22||17||43||14||38|
|Foreign or nonresident||69||13||8||74||22||26||38||20||45|
|Two or more races/ethnicities||52||13||5||59||23||25||49||16||46|
|Traditional (First-year < 21, Senior < 25):||54||13||5||64||28||29||59||19||53|
|Nontraditional (First-year 21+, Senior 25+)||40||6||4||53||13||12||30||4||30|
|Less than full-time||44||6||4||52||13||12||31||6||29|
|Living off campus||50||8||4||59||21||21||46||12||42|
|Living on campus||54||15||5||67||34||34||62||24||59|
|Arts & humanities||51||12||4||55||21||25||41||21||56|
|Biological sciences, agriculture, natural resources||52||16||8||56||25||46||50||18||45|
|Physical sciences, math, computer science||44||12||6||43||20||36||47||13||45|
|Communications, media, public relations||53||13||5||64||24||22||60||21||60|
|Social service professions||59||10||5||67||23||15||46||8||38|
|Notes: Percentages weighted by sex, enrollment status, and institution size. Participating students are those who responded "Done or in progress" for all HIPs except service-learning, where students reported at least "Some" of their courses included a community-based project. Sex, enrollment status, and race/ethnicity are institution-reported variables.|
|a. If provided, “Another” and “Unknown” categories are not displayed due to low Ns.|
|b. Neither parent holds a bachelor's degree.|
|c. NSSE's default related-major categories, based on students' first reported major. Excludes majors categorized as "all other."|
Are Students Meeting the HIP Challenge?
NSSE recommends that institutions make it possible for all students to participate in at least two HIPs over the course of their undergraduate experience—including one in the first year and another in the context of the major. Figure 12 displays the percentage of students who participated in High-Impact Practices. About 3 in 5 first-year students participated in at least one HIP, and about 5 out of 8 seniors participated in at least two HIPs.
See page 15 for additional information about HIPs.